In press

Perone, S., Plebanek, D. J., Lorenz, M. G., Spencer, J. P., & Samuelson, L. K. (in press). Empirical tests of a brain-based model of executive function development. Child Development.

Simmering, V.R. & Wood, C.M. (in press). The importance of real-time stability for visual working memory performance: Young children’s feature binding can be improved through perceptual structure. Developmental Psychology.


Perone, S. & Simmering, V.R. (2017). Applications of dynamic system theory to cognition and development: New frontiers. In J. Benson (Ed.) Advances in Child Development and Behavior (Vol. 52 , pp. 43-80). Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/bs.acdb.2016.10.002


Johnson, J.S., & Spencer, J.P. (2016). Testing a dynamic-field account of interactions between spatial attention and spatial working memory. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 78(4), 1043-1063.

Samuelson, L. K., Kucker, S. C., & Spencer, J. P. (2016). Moving Word Learning to a Novel Space: A Dynamic Systems View of Referent Selection and Retention. Cognitive science. DOI: 10.1111/cogs.12369

Simmering, V.R. (2016). Working memory capacity in context: Modeling dynamic processes of behavior, memory, and development. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 81(3), 7-148. doi: 10.1111/mono.12202

Simmering, V.R. & Miller, H.E. (2016). Developmental improvements in visual working memory resolution and capacity share a common source. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 78(6), 1538-55. doi: 10.3758/s13414-016-1163-y

Wijeakumar, S., Ambrose, J. P., Spencer, J. P., & Curtu, R. (2016). Model-based functional neuroimaging using dynamic neural fields: An integrative cognitive neuroscience approach. Journal of Mathematical Psychology.


Billing, E.; Lowe, R. & Sandamirskaya, Y. (2015). Simultaneous Planning and Action: Neural-dynamic Sequencing of Elementary Behaviours in Robot Navigation. Adaptive Behavior, 9, 2015, 1-22.

Hecht, L.N., Spencer, J.P. & Vecera, S.P. (2015). A dynamic neural field model of temporal order judgments. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 41(6), 1718-33.

Perone, S., Molitor, S. J., Buss, A. T., Spencer, J. P., & Samuelson, L. K. (2015). Enhancing the executive functions of 3-year-olds in the dimensional change card sort taskChild Development86(3), 812–827. doi:10.1111/cdev.12330

Reimann, H., Lins, J., & Schöner, G. (2015). The dynamics of neural activation variables. Paladyn, Journal of Behavioral Robotics, 6(1), 1–19.

Ross-Sheehy, S., Schneegans, S., & Spencer, J.P. (2015). The infant orienting with attention task: assessing the neural basis of visuo-spatial attention in infancy. Infancy, 20, 467-506.

Perone, S., Molitor, S., Buss, A.T., Spencer, J.P. & Samuelson, L.K. (2015). Enhancing the executive functions of 3-year-olds in the dimensional change card sort task. Child Development, 86, 812-827.

Samuelson, L.K., Jenkins, G.W. & Spencer, J.P. (2015). Grounding cognitive-level processes in behavior: The view from dynamic systems theory. Topics in Cognitive Science, 7(2), 191-205.

Sandamirskaya, Y. & Burtsev, M. (2015). NARLE: Neurocognitive architecture for the autonomous task recognition, learning, and execution. BICA, 13.

Simmering, V.R., Miller, H.E., & Bohache, K. (2015). Different developmental trajectories across visual feature types support a dynamic field model of visual working memory development. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 77, 1170-1188. doi: 10.3758/s13414-015-0832-6

Sousa, E. A. F., Erlhagen, W., Ferreira, F., Bicho, E. (2015). Off-line simulation inspires insight: A neurodynamics approach to efficient robot task learning. Neural Networks, 72,



Bell, C., Storck, T., & Sandamirskaya, Y. (2014). Learning to Look: a Dynamic Neural Fields Architecture for Gaze Shift Generation. International Conference for Artificial Neural Networks (ICANN).

Buss, A. T. & Spencer, J. P. (2014). The emergent executive: A dynamic field theory of the development of executive function. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 79, 1-132.

Johnson, J.S., Simmering, V.R., & Buss, A.T. (2014). Beyond slots and resources: Grounding cognitive concepts in neural dynamics. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 76, 1630-1654. (Special Issue: The Structure of Visual Working Memory, J. Wolfe, Ed.) doi: 10.3758/s13414-013-0596-9

Lowe, R.; Sandamirskaya, Y.; & Billing, E. (2014). A Neural Dynamic Model of Associative Two-Process Theory: The Differential Outcomes Effect and Infant Development. 12th IEEE International Conference on Development and Learning (ICDL).

Luciw, M.; Sandamirskaya, Y.; Kazerounian, S.; Schmidhuber, J, & Schöner, G. (2014). Reinforcement and Shaping in Learning Action Sequences with Neural Dynamics. 12th IEEE International Conference on Development and Learning (ICDL).

Richter, M.; Lins, J.; Schneegans, S.; Sandamirskaya, Y. & Schöner, G. (2014). Autonomous Neural Dynamics to Test Hypotheses in a Model of Spatial Language. The Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (CogSci).

Perone, S., & Spencer, J. P. (2014). The co-development of looking dynamics and discrimination performance. Developmental Psychology, 50, 837-852.

Sandamirskaya, Y. & Storck, T. (2014). Neural-Dynamic Architecture for Looking: from Visual to Motor Target Representation for Memory Saccades. 12th IEEE International Conference on Development and Learning (ICDL).

Schneegans, S., Spencer, J.P., Schöner, G., Hwang, S. & Hollingworth, A. (2014). Dynamic interactions between visual working memory and saccade target selection. Journal of Vision, 14(11):9, 1–23.

Strub, C.; Wörgötter, F.; Ritter, H.; & Sandamirskaya, Y. (2014). Correcting Pose Estimates during Tactile Exploration of Object Shape: a Neuro-robotic Study. 12th IEEE International Conference on Development and Learning (ICDL).

Strub, C.; Wörgötter, F.; Ritter, H.; & Sandamirskaya, Y. (2014). Using Haptics to Extract Object Shape from Rotational Manipulations. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS).


Buss, A.T., Wifall, T., Hazeltine, E. & Spencer, J.P. (2013). Integrating the behavioral and neural dynamics of response selection in a dual-task paradigm: A dynamic neural field model of Dux et al. (2009). Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 26, 334-351.

Kazerounian, S.; Luciw, M; Richter, M; & Sandamirskaya, Y. (2013). Autonomous Reinforcement of Behavioral Sequences in Neural Dynamics. International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN).

Lomp, O., Zibner, S. K. U., Richter, M., Rano, I., & Schöner, G. (2013). A software framework for cognition, embodiment, dynamics, and autonomy in robotics: cedar. In V. Mladenov (Ed.), ICANN 2013, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8131 (pp. 475–482). Heidelberg: Springer.

Luciw, M.; Kazerounian, S.; Lakhmann, K.; Richter, M. & Sandamirskaya, Y. (2013). Learning the Perceptual Conditions of Satisfaction of Elementary Behaviors. Robotics: Science and Systems (RSS), Workshop "Active Learning in Robotics: Exploration, Curiosity, and Interaction".

Perone, S. & Spencer, J.P. (2013). Autonomous visual exploration creates developmental change in familiarity and novelty seeking behaviors. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, Article 648.

Perone, S. & Spencer, J.P. (2013). Autonomy in action: Linking the act of looking to memory formation in infancy via dynamic neural fields. Cognitive Science, 37, 1-60.

Samuelson, L. K., Spencer, J. P., & Jenkins, G. W. (2013). A Dynamic Neural Field Model of Word Learning. In Theoretical and Computational Models of Word Learning: Trends in Psychology and Artificial Intelligence (pp. 1–27). IGI Global. doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-2973-8.ch001

Sandamirskaya, Y. (2013). Dynamic Neural Fields as a Step Towards Cognitive Neuromorphic Architectures. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 7, 276 (

Sandamirskaya, Y.; Conradt, J. (2013). Increasing Autonomy of Learning Sensorimotor Transformations with Dynamic Neural Fields. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Workshop on “Autonomous Learning -- from Machine Learning to Learning in Real-World Autonomous Systems”.

Sandamirskaya, Y.; Conradt, J. (2013). Learning Sensorimotor Transformations with Dynamic Neural Fields. International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks (ICANN).

Sandamirskaya, Y.; Zibner, S.; Schneegans, S.; & Schöner, G. (2013). Using Dynamic Field Theory to Extend the Embodiment Stance toward Higher Cognition. New Ideas in Psychology.

Simmering, V.R. & Perone, S. (2013). Working memory capacity as a dynamic process. Frontiers in Psychology: Developmental Psychology, 3:567, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00567


Duran, B & Sandamirskaya, Y. (2012). Neural Dynamics of Hierarchically Organized Sequences: a Robotic Implementation. Proceedings of 2012 IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots (Humanoids).

Duran, B.; Sandamirskaya, Y.; & Schöner, G. (2012). A Dynamic Field architecture for generation of hierarchically organized sequences. International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks (ICANN).

Lipinski, J., Schneegans, S., Sandamirskaya, Y., Spencer, J.P., & Schöner, G. (2012). A Neuro-Behavioral Model of Flexible Spatial Language Behaviors. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 38, 1490-1511.

Richter, M.; Sandamirskaya, Y.; & Schöner, G. (2012). A robotic architecture for action selection and behavioral organization inspired by human cognition. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS).

Simmering, V.R. & Patterson, R. (2012). Models provide specificity: Testing a proposed mechanism of visual working memory capacity development. Cognitive Development, 27, 419-439. (Special Issue: The Potential Contribution of Computational Modeling to the Study of Cognitive Development: When, and for What Topics?, S. Marcovitch & P.D. Zelazo, Eds.) doi: 10.1016/j.cogdev.2012.08.001

Spencer, J.P., Austin, A., & Schutte, A.R. (2012). Contributions of dynamic systems theory to cognitive development. Cognitive Development, 27, 401-418.

Spencer, J. P., Barich, K., Goldberg, J., & Perone, S. (2012). Behavioral dynamics and neural grounding of a dynamic field theory of multi-object tracking. Journal of Integrative Neuroscience, 11, 339-362.

van Hengel, U.; Sandamirskaya, Y.; Schneegans, S. & Schöner, G. (2012). A neural-dynamic architecture for flexible spatial language: intrinsic frames, the term "between", and autonomy. 21st IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, RO-MAN.


Lipinski, J.; Schneegans, S.; Sandamirskaya, Y.; Spencer, J. & Schöner, G. (2011). A Neurobehavioral Model of Flexible Spatial Language Behaviors. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition (JEP:LMC), (

Samuelson, L. K., Smith, L. B., Perry, L. K., & Spencer, J. P. (2011). Grounding word learning in spacePLoS ONE6(12), e28095. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028095

Sandamirskaya, Y.; Richter, M. & Schöner, G. (2011). A neural-dynamic architecture for behavioral organization of an embodied agent. IEEE International Conference on Development and Learning and on Epigenetic Robotics (ICDL EPIROB).

Schutte, A. R., Simmering, V., & Ortmann, M. R.* (2011). Keeping behavior in context: A dynamic systems account of a transition in spatial recall biases. Spatial Cognition and Computation, 11, 313-342.

Perone, S., Simmering, V.R. & Spencer, J.P. (2011). Stronger neural dynamics capture changes in infants’ visual short-term memory capacity over development. Developmental Science, 14, 1379-1392.

Spencer, J.P., Perone, S. & Buss, A.T. (2011). Twenty years and going strong: A dynamic systems revolution in motor and cognitive development. Child Development Perspectives, 5, 260-266.

Zibner, S. K. U., Faubel, C., Iossifidis, I., & Schöner, G. (2011). Dynamic neural fields as building blocks for a cortex-inspired architecture of robotic scene representationIEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development3(1), 74–91.


Lipinski, J., Simmering, V.R., Johnson, J.S. & Spencer, J.P. (2010). The role of experience in location estimation: Target distributions shift location memory biases. Cognition, 115, 147-153.

Lipinski, J., Spencer, J.P. & Samuelson, L.K. (2010). Biased feedback in spatial recall yields a violation of delta rule learning. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 17, 581-588.

Ortmann, M. R.* & Schutte, A. R. (2010). The relationship between the perception of axes of symmetry and spatial memory during early childhood. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 107, 368-376.

Sandamirskaya, Y.; Lipinski, J.; Iossifidis, I. & Schöner, G. (2010). Natural human-robot interaction through spatial language: a dynamic neural fields approach. 19th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, RO-MAN, 600-607.

Sandamirskaya, Y. & Schöner, G. (2010). An embodied account of serial order: How instabilities drive sequence generation. Neural Networks, 2010, 23, 1164-1179 (

Sandamirskaya, Y. & Schöner, G. (2010). Serial order in an acting system: a multidimensional dynamic neural fields implementation. 9th IEEE International Conference on Development and Learning (ICDL).

Schutte, A.R. & Spencer, J.P. (2010). Filling the gap on developmental change: Tests of a dynamic field theory of spatial cognition. Journal of Cognition and Development, 11, 1-27.

Simmering, V.R., Triesch, J., Deák, G.O., & Spencer, J.P. (2010). A dialogue on the role of computational modeling in developmental science. Child Development Perspectives, 4, 152-158. doi:  10.1111/j.1750-8606.2010.00134.x


Johnson, J.S.,  Spencer, J.P., Luck, S.J., & Schöner, G. (2009). A dynamic neural field model of visual working memory and change detection. Psychological Science, 20, 568-577.

Johnson, J.S.,  Spencer, J.P., & Schöner, G. (2009). A layered neural architecture for the consolidation, maintenance, and updating of representations in visual working memory. Brain Research, 1299, 17-32.

Lipinski, J.; Sandamirskaya, Y. & Schöner, G. (2009). Behaviorally Flexible Spatial Communication: Robotic Demonstrations of a Neurodynamic Framework. KI 2009, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, Mertsching, B.; Hund, M. & Z., A. (Eds.), Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2009, 5803, 257-264.

Lipinski, J.; Sandamirskaya, Y. & Schöner, G. (2009). Flexible Spatial Language Behaviors: Developing a Neural Dynamic Theoretical Framework. 9th International Conference on Cognitive Modeling, ICCM 2009. Manchester, UK.

Lipinski, J.; Sandamirskaya, Y. & Schöner, G. (2009). Swing it to the Left, Swing it to the Right: Enacting Flexible Spatial Language Using a Neurodynamic Framework. Cognitive Neurodynamics, special issue on Language Dynamics, 3 (

Samuelson, L. K., Schutte, A. R., & Horst, J. S. (2009). The dynamic nature of knowledge: insights from a dynamic field model of children’s novel noun generalizationCognition110(3), 322–45. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2008.10.017

Schutte, A.R. & Spencer, J.P. (2009). Tests of the dynamic field theory and the spatial precision hypothesis: Capturing a qualitative developmental transition in spatial working memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35, 1698-1725.

Spencer, J.P., Dineva, E. & Smith, L.B. (2009). Comment on “Infants’ Perseverative Search Errors Are Induced by Pragmatic Misinterpretation”. Science, 325, 1624-a.


Johnson, J.S., Spencer, J.P., & Schöner, G. (2008). Moving to higher ground: The dynamic field theory and the dynamics of visual cognition. In F. Garzón, A. Laakso, & T. Gomila (Eds.) Dynamics and Psychology [special issue]. New Ideas in Psychology, 26, 227-251.

Samuelson, L. K., Horst, J. S., Schutte A. R., & Dobbertin, B. N. (2008). Rigid thinking about deformables: Do children sometimes overgeneralize the shape bias? Journal of Child Language, 35, 559-589.

Sandamirskaya, Y. & Schöner, G. (2008). Dynamic Field Theory of Sequential Action: A Model and its Implementation on an Embodied Agent. 7th IEEE International Conference on Development and Learning (ICDL).

Simmering, V.R., Schutte, A.R., & Spencer, J.P. (2008). Generalizing the dynamic field theory of spatial working memory across real and developmental time scales. In S. Becker (Ed.) Computational Cognitive Neuroscience [special issue]. Brain Research, 1202, 68-86.

Simmering, V.R. & Spencer, J.P. (2008). Generality with specificity: The dynamic field theory generalizes across tasks and time scales. Developmental Science, 11, 541-555.

Schöner, G., & Reimann, H. (2008). Understanding embodied cognition through dynamical systems thinking. In J. Symons & P. Calvo (Eds.), The Routledge Companion to the Philosophy of Psychology (pp. 1–27). Routledge.

Spencer, J.P. & Perone, S. (2008). Defending qualitative change: The view from dynamical systems theory. Child Development, 79, 1639-1647.


Schutte, A.R. & Spencer, J.P. (2007). Planning ‘discrete’ movements using a continuous system: Insights from a dynamic field theory of movement preparation. Motor Control, 11, 166-208.


Samuelson, L. K., Horst, J. S., Dobbertin, B. N., & Schutte A. R. (2006). Knowledge, performance, and task: Décalage and dynamics in young children’s noun generalizations. In R Sun (Ed.), Proceedings of the Twenty-Eighth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 720-725) LEA.

Sandamirskaya, Y. & Schöner, G. (2006). Dynamic Field Theory and Embodied Communication. Modeling communication with robots and virtual humans, G. Wachsmuth, I. & Knoblich, G. (Eds.) Springer, 260-278 (

Simmering, V.R., Spencer, J.P., & Schöner, G. (2006). Reference-related inhibition produces enhanced position discrimination and fast repulsion near axes of symmetry. Perception and Psychophysics, 63, 1027-1046.

Spencer, J.P., Clearfield, M., Corbetta, D., Ulrich, B., Buchanan, P., & Schöner, G. (2006). Moving toward a grand theory of development: In memory of Esther Thelen. Child Development, 77, 1521-1538.

Spencer, J.P., Simmering, V.R., & Schutte, A.R. (2006). Toward a formal theory of flexible spatial behavior: Geometric category biases generalize across pointing and verbal response types. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 32, 473-490.


Spencer, J. P. & Schutte, A. R. (2004). Unifying representations and responses: Perseverative biases arise from a single behavioral system. Psychological Science, 15, 187-193.


Schutte, A.R., Spencer, J.P., & Schöner, G. (2003). Testing the dynamic field theory: Working memory for locations becomes more spatially precise over development. Child Development, 74, 1393-1417.

Spencer, J.P. & Schöner, G. (2003). Bridging the representational gap in the dynamic systems approach to development. Developmental Science, 6, 392-412.


Schutte, A.R. & Spencer, J.P. (2002). Generalizing the dynamic field theory of the A-not-B error beyond infancy: Three-year-olds' delay- and experience-dependent location memory biases. Child Development, 73, 377-404.


Spencer, J.P., Smith, L.B., & Thelen, E. (2001). Tests of a dynamic systems account of the A-not-B error: The influence of prior experience on the spatial memory abilities of 2-year-olds. Child Development, 72, 1327-1346.